Demonstrators expressing political and economic grievances faced violent crackdowns by their countries security forces. Thi s researc h articl e attempts to scrutinize the nature and cause s of the ara b uprising s which too k people by surpris e globall y throughou t 2011 and int o 2012. On a systemic level, the arab uprising will create a new political and economic reality in the middle east and transform the regional balance of power. The arab springs impact on the middle east has been profound, even if in many places its final outcome might not become clear for at least a generation. Arab spring, wave of prodemocracy protests and uprisings that took place in the middle east and north africa beginning in 2010, challenging some of the regions entrenched authoritarian regimes. A radical exploration of the arab uprising on jstor. Arab springaffected countries suffered even more due to the 2008 economic crisis. It examines the real meaning of the rise of islamist movements in the emerging democracies, and the longterm hopes of a generation of activists confronted with the. Gelvin explores the varied paths taken by the uprisings and assesses their historical and global significance. Politics comes first gadi wolfsfeld 1, elad segev2, and tamir sheafer3 abstract the goal of this article is to place the role that social media plays in collective action within a more general theoretical structure, using the events of the arab spring as a case study. The uprising of women in the arab world is a space where supporters of womens rights share their experiences and campaign for equality. Arab regimes had been sitting on a demographic time bomb for decades. Protests in libya began on 15 february, 2011 in front of benghazis police headquarters following the arrest of a human rights attorney who represented the relatives of more than 1,000 prisoners allegedly massacred by security forces in tripolis abu salim jail in 1996.
Later, similar rebellions followed in libya, bahrain, syria and yemen. The unfinished revolutions of the new middle east devoted an entire chapter to demonstrating how each previous round of popular mobilization in modern arab history had ended up with the consolidation of even more heavyhanded authoritarianism. But lynch saw dark signs on the horizon, especially in syria. The arab spring was a series of prodemocracy uprisings that enveloped several largely muslim countries, including tunisia, morocco, syria, libya, egypt and.
The arab uprising began 18th december 2010 in tunisia and quickly spread throughout the rest of the middle east in countries such as egypt, libya and syria. Though it is tempting to focus on the role of media and perhaps new social media. It both challenged the political status quo in the middle east and attempted to write a. Apr 10, 20 in the midst of the arab awakening, there is a new sunnishia divide which has greatly complicated the diplomatic and geopolitical challenges facing the united states. The middle east and north africa mena have long been laden with tensions and instabilities. It both challenged the political status quo in the middle east and attempted to write a new chapter in the history of the region. They help divided societies to air and hopefully resolve their differences. Instead, a new arab political identity with an antidespotic, pluralis t and democracyseekin g approach is dawning. Bloody vengeance in sirte human rights watch october 2012 a firsthand account of gaddafis desperate last days. Transcript arab nationalism, islamism and the arab uprising. Chapter 5 a provisional balance sheet of the arab uprising pp.
The roots and causes of the 2011 arab uprisings kamal eldin osman salih abstract. Aug 19, 2014 it has become fashionable to dismiss the significance of the 2011 arab uprisings, given how badly most have turned out. A unmandated peacekeeping force, drawn from arab and muslim not western countries, will be essential in a libyan postconflict situation. This paper examines the significance of the recent arab uprisings and their implications for regional and global oil and gas markets. A year of revolution a year ago, a tunisian fruitseller set himself on fire after being humiliated by a police officer. What are the factors that account for the prominence of youth as advocates of change in the arab world. This thesis critically examines the concept of the arab spring in describing the recent uprisings. Sep 17, 2015 the arab uprisings initiation and outcomes, therefore, have been manifestly and profoundly shaped by international factors, with which international relations theory has yet to fully engage.
Mar 29, 2019 by early 2011 they had spread into what became known as the arab springa wave of protests, uprisings, and unrest that spread across arabicspeaking countries in north africa and the middle east. Marc lynchs last book, the arab uprising, described the then ongoing revolutionary change and prospect for the consolidation of democracy in key arab countries that still seemed possible. Causes of the arab spring causes of the arab spring may be described as following. The year 20 marked the third since the beginning of the 201011 arab uprisings. The arab uprising follows these struggles from tunisia and egypt to the harsh battles of yemen, bahrain, syria, and libya and to the cautious reforms of the regions monarchies. Youth and the arab spring united states institute of peace. Egypt marks seventh anniversary of arab spring uprising. Inspired by the arab spring protests, the collection of tweets, posts, and stories is a tiny glimpse into what life is like for women living in the arab world, and why so many of them are fighting for change. Zanzibar was an ethnically diverse state consisting of a number of islands off the east coast of tanganyika which had been granted independence by britain in 1963. In the midst of the arab awakening, there is a new sunnishia divide which has greatly complicated the diplomatic and geopolitical challenges facing the united states.
This book emerges from the observation that much has changed in the field of political islam following the popular uprisings that rocked the authoritarian status quo in the middle east and north africa mena in 201011, nowadays widely referred to. Since 2011, egypt has witnessed protests, political turnovers, sporadic violence, and waves of repression. How can we account for the internal conflicts among islamist players after the 20112012 arab uprisings. The arab uprisings explained is the product of 20 leading scholars in the field, based on a number of workshops convened by the project on middle east political science. Aug 28, 2019 the arab spring was a series of antigovernment protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across the middle east in early 2011.
This collection should be of considerable interest to students of international relations, particularly those with an interest in the politics of the middle east and north africa. The common slogan of the protesters throughout arab spring was the people want to bring down the regime aissa, 2012. However, the recent arab uprisings, better known as the arab spring, have intensified volatility, turning this hotspot into a veritable tinderbox. But, the moment of mobilization was extraordinary on its own terms. Arab spring used their powers vehemently to crush the demonstrators and consequently the peaceful protesters also became violent. Between the islamic state and the nationstate the brookings project on u. Uprisings and anarchy in the middle east kindle edition by lynch, marc. While western influencein the region will inevitably decline as a result, the arab revolutions also have an undeniable potential to enhance.
The syrian uprisings transformation to civil war is a result of the assads ruling practices, which embedded sectarianism in social relations. Protests that spread across the region in early 2011 started a longterm process of political and social transformation, marked in the initial stages primarily by political turbulence, economic difficulties, and even conflict. For years scholars have been warning about the youth bulge that the disproportionately large population of young men in the arab world is a ticking time bomb. However, the economic models chosen by the successive regimes were ineffective in. Zanzibar was an ethnically diverse state consisting of a number of islands off the east coast of tanganyika which had been granted. Download it once and read it on your kindle device, pc, phones or tablets. Implications for us policy and interests democracies make for stronger and stabler partners. Pdf islamists and the politics of the arab uprisings, h. The event set off uprisings across north africa and the. The aftermath of the arab spring simon tisdall opinion. Pdf political islam and the arab uprisings paola rivetti.
Causes, consequences, and perspectives foreword this paper is an extended summary of a panel discussion with rami khouri on the topic of the arab uprisings auses, onsequences, and perspectives. The arab uprisings initiation and outcomes, therefore, have been manifestly and profoundly shaped by international factors, with which. The role of social media in the arab uprisings pew. Understanding attitudes and responses to the new middle east by benedetta berti from the outset, the arab spring has taken the world by storm. As egyptians mark seventh year since 2011 revolution, authorities seal off tahrir square to prevent potential protests. Throughout the recorded history, the middle east has been playing a vital role in the global geopolitics. Pdf arab spring and the contemporary geopolitics of the. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading the new arab wars. But their purpose, relative success, and outcome remain hotly disputed in arab countries, among foreign observers, and between world powers looking to cash in on the changing map of the middle east. Transcript arab nationalism, islamism and the arab uprising lse. It began in response to oppressive regimes and a low standard of living, starting with protests in tunisia noueihed, 2011. Thawrat zanjibar occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the sultan of zanzibar and his mainly arab government by local african revolutionaries.
Demographics and the political momentum seem to be on their side. Employing an engaging questionandanswer format, the arab uprisings explores the revolutionary protests that have rocked the arab world since late 2010. In this updated and revised second edition, james l. Mena oil and gas, and the way in which the effects of the arab uprisings are likely to manifest themselves in the long term. Moreover this paper tries to predict the consequences of these. The arab uprisings have brought down regimes, but other consequences have been far less predictable. Gaddafis final days are detailed in a new report from human rights watch, which painstakingly reconstructs his movements and those of the citizen militia that. While western influencein the region will inevitably decline as a result, the arab revolutions also have an. Its causes and consequences abstract this paper attempts to examine the causes of the arab uprisings in middle eastern states. Youth played a central role in sparking protest movements across the middle east. A parsimonious explanation of recent contentious politics 2 whether american democratization policies have supported the protests barnes, 20 and described the importance of safetyvalve elections in autocratic regimes such as morocco buehler, 20. By the end of the 1950s, most arab countries had gained their independence. The arab spring of discontent einternational relations.
Pdf egyptian revolution, also known as arab spring or arab uprising, was a shock for international community because egypt has been seen as one of the. The arab spring was a series of antigovernment protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across the middle east in early 2011. Dalacoura, katerina 20 the arab uprisings two years on. Nov 30, 2011 transcript arab nationalism, islamism and the arab uprising lse. Tunisias mass popular uprising, dubbed the jasmine revolution, sparked antigovernment movements in other countries across the region. A system of dispersed, authoritarian rule allowed successive regimes to wield power through local intermediates to either coopt or marginalize. The significant geographic characteristics supplemented by an enormous oil reserve has turned the region as one the most highlighted. However, the recent arab uprisings, better known as the arab spring, have intensified volatility. Tunisia this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010. It also highlights the events of the civil uprisings which led to the removal of some rulers. What role does political islam play in the genealogy of protests as an instrument to resist neoliberalism and authoritarian rule.729 1560 299 763 94 1028 1328 666 308 271 274 1300 240 1100 915 1209 877 43 990 214 1456 1235 488 1022 179 71 842 339 175 666 1306 153 1192 302 1406 1450 1226 772 1250 1243 1205 506 111